Planning for retirement all comes down to ensuring you have enough savings and income to retire. The age at which you will hopefully achieve this milestone should be considered alongside how long you desire to keep working for.
There are special rules which allow individuals who set up a pension scheme to benefit from significant tax reliefs when saving for their retirement. The following is a summary of the main elements of the rules governing private pension contributions. You may also want to consider other saving vehicles such as property, stocks and shares and ISAs.
Pension contribution limits
There is no overall limit to employer or employee contributions and no upper limit to the total amount of pension savings that can be built up. However, there are limits that affect tax issues and these are set out below.
Tax relief on pension contributions
The government is keen to encourage individuals to save for their retirement and tax relief for contributions to pension schemes is given at the individual’s marginal rate of Income Tax subject to the annual and lifetime allowances. The income and gains which arise as part of a pension scheme are generally exempt from Income Tax and CGT.
The annual allowance for tax relief on pensions is currently (in 2022-23) £40,000. There is a three year carry forward rule that allows taxpayers to carry forward unused annual allowance from the last three tax years (2019-20, 2020-21 and 2021-22) if they have made insufficient pension savings in those years.
The annual allowance is tapered for taxpayers whose income exceeds £240,000. The allowance will reduce by £1 for every £2 that an individual’s income exceeds £240,000, down to a minimum of £4,000.
Lifetime allowance charge
The lifetime allowance is the maximum amount of pension and/or a lump sum that benefits from tax relief. The current maximum lifetime allowance is £1,073,100. When a pensioner begins to draw benefits or reaches age 75, the value of benefits will be tested against the lifetime allowance.
Any benefits from registered schemes in excess of the allowance (i.e. once 100% of the individual’s lifetime allowance has been used up) will be subject to a lifetime allowance charge.
Options at retirement
People aged 55 and over can take advantage of accessing pension savings. The rules allow people to access their pension pots and decide how to use their defined contributions pension savings. Of course, with the important caveat that proper provision is kept for later years.
There are three main options available, a lifetime annuity, flexi-access drawdown and a lump sum payment. These options can be used on their own or in combination. The first 25% is tax-free and the remainder is taxed at the individual’s marginal rate.
Where the pension saver dies after age 75, the beneficiary will pay tax at their marginal rate if the funds are taken as lump sum payment.
Working past retirement age
There are many taxpayers that have reached the State Pension age and continue to work. In most cases, they no longer need to pay any National Insurance Contributions (NICs).
At the State Pension age, the requirement to pay Class 1 and Class 2 NICs ceases. However, you will remain liable to pay any NICs that were due to be paid on earnings from before you reached the State Pension age. If you continue working, you usually need to provide your employer with proof of your age to make sure you stop paying National Insurance. If you would rather not provide proof of age to your employer you can request a letter (known as an age exception certificate) from HMRC confirming, you have reached the State Pension age and are no longer required to pay NICs. Your employer remains liable to pay secondary Class 1 employer NICs.
Some jobs have a compulsory retirement age after which you are no longer allowed to work. An employer must have a good reason for setting a compulsory retirement age such as there is an age limit set by law, or the job requires certain physical abilities. However, apart from these special circumstances, there is no official retirement age, and you usually have the right to work as long as you want to. There is also no requirement to provide your date of birth when applying for a new job.
If you are self-employed you will need to pay Class 4 NICs for the remainder of the year in which you reach State Pension age but will be exempt from the following year.
Pensions Advice Allowance
The Pensions Advice Allowance (PAA) is a Government initiative that came into force in April 2017. The allowance allows those nearing retirement to take up to £500 out of their pension pots tax-free to put towards the cost of financial advice.
The advice provided can relate directly to the pension as well as to other financial products that help build retirement income such as multiple pension pots and other assets like ISA savings.
The allowance is limited to £500 per use and the £500 will not be taxed on withdrawal from the pension pot, regardless of the individual’s income. The payment of the allowance must be made directly from the pension scheme to the adviser and will only be available for regulated financial advice.
There is also an annual £500 tax-free allowance for any adult that receives advice for employer arranged pensions. The advice provided can relate directly to the pension as well as to the general financial and tax issues relating to pensions. The exemption applies to the first £500 worth of pensions advice provided to an employee in a tax year, whether or not the employer pays for or reimburses the employee for the cost of the advice.
New State Pension
The New State Pension is a regular payment from the government that can be claimed by people that reach the State Pension age. To claim the pension, claimants must usually have at least 10 years of National Insurance contributions.
The New State Pension is available to:
- Men born on or after 6 April 1951
- Women born on or after 6 April 1953
The full New State Pension is currently £185.15 per week. Retirees that reached the State Pension age before 6 April 2016 continue to receive the Old State Pension and not the New State Pension.
The Old State Pension is made up of two parts, the basic State Pension and the Additional State Pension. To get the full basic State Pension, most people need to have 30 qualifying years of NICs.
Page updated on 05/04/2022